The Armed Forces Special Powers Act, 1958 was first enacted to fight Naga insurgency; later, its scope was expanded to cover other regions facing insurgency. The law empowers the armed forces to “shoot to kill” and “arrest without warrant on suspicion” in areas declared as ‘disturbed‘. The law gives certain discretionary powers to armed forces and also protects them from judicial prosecution for their actions.
The authority to declare an area in a state as ‘disturbed’ lies with the Governor of the State, and the Ministry of Home Affairs of the Union Government.
Police is the civil force of the government, responsible for prevention and detection of crime, and the maintenance of law and order at ground level.
Legislative framework for policing
Police, prisons, and public order are subjects enumerated in the state list, while Criminal law and Criminal procedure are subjects enumerated in the concurrent list of the seventh schedule.
The understanding and definition of terrorism varies worldwide. Some countries label dissenting groups as terrorists and curb their human rights in the name of fighting terrorism. Here is a list of around a dozen institutional names that come in the literature related to the global fight against terrorism and organised crime.
Internal Security Challenges refer to the challenges that originate within the country and pose a threat to the integrity and democratic functioning of the government in any part of the country. Besides the traditional internal security challenges such as Left Wing Extremism, Insurgency and conflicts in Jammu Kashmir and Northeast India, new security challenges such as the issue of cyber security, polarisation and rising extremism in society too are becoming important and demand attention. Here, we will see briefly the Maoist insurgency, Jammu and Kashmir, and Northeast issues, while also putting a light on the salient features of the laws that the government has enacted to deal with these challenges.
Prevention of proliferation of weapons has been a major concern of international community since the World War II. Though strategic interests and power struggles of some major powers have hindered attempts of weapons control, below are listed some mechanisms which work to ensure that dangerous weapons (especially nuclear weapons) do not get into the wrong hands.