Black money is the money that is unaccounted for, wherein taxes have not been paid on that money. Sources of black money are often illegal, such as crime – trafficking, illegal trade, fraud – and corruption -bribery, leakages from government programmes; but the source of black money can be legal too. To be black, a money just has to be unaccounted for, and untaxed.
Some black money, especially in the poor classes, is unavoidable in any economy. The black money which the government agencies target is that associated with tax evasion and illicit organised crime such as human trafficking. Legal definitions of black money may vary, for example, under the Black Money Act 2015, the term ‘black money’ covers only the ‘undisclosed foreign income and assets’.
Money laundering is the process wherein proceeds of crime are converted into legal money or asset in order to obscure its origin.
Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) are institutions of local self governance existing since centuries in the rural India. In 1959, Rajasthan became the first state of India to give legal recognition and empowerment to the village panchayats. Other states too created their own models and followed the league. However, it was only with the 73rd Constitution (Amendment) Act 1992 that the Panchayati Raj Institutions got the recognition in the Constitution of India. The amendment added Part IX (Article 243 A-O) titled Panchayats to the Constitution. It also added the 11th Schedule listing 29 subjects that may be devolved to the PRIs by the state legislatures.
Political Interference and corruption are two major issues that hinder the processes of justice and damage the people’s trust in police. To reform the police, the Supreme Court issued some guidelines in 2006 (Prakash Singh and other vs Union of India), which aimed to improve the functional autonomy and reduce corruption in police. Till now, no concrete action has been taken by the states to implement these guidelines.
2006 Supreme Court guidelines for police reforms included:
Internal Security Challenges refer to the challenges that originate within the country and pose a threat to the integrity and democratic functioning of the government in any part of the country. Besides the traditional internal security challenges such as Left Wing Extremism, Insurgency and conflicts in Jammu Kashmir and Northeast India, new security challenges such as the issue of cyber security, polarisation and rising extremism in society too are becoming important and demand attention. Here, we will see briefly the Maoist insurgency, Jammu and Kashmir, and Northeast issues, while also putting a light on the salient features of the laws that the government has enacted to deal with these challenges.
The Smart Cities Mission of the Government of India is an urban renewal and development programme that aims to make cities citizen-friendly and sustainable. The vision of what makes a city smart varies, but it can be broadly summed up in terms of the following features.