Ministry of Rural Development is the nodal ministry for development and welfare activities in the rural India. It deals with wide variety of matters concerning rural areas including health, education, drinking water, housing, roads, and livelihood promotion.
Rural development is a State subject, thus schemes of rural development are implemented through the state governments and associated agencies while the Ministry of Rural Development provides them with funds, guidelines, and technical support.
See the history and evolution of the Ministry of Rural Development on the official website, here.
- Department of Rural Development
- Department of Land Resources
Schemes and programmes:
MGNREGA – Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005
MGNREGA is a social security measure that aims to guarantee the ‘right to work‘. The scheme provides livelihood security to rural households by providing guaranteed wage employment for 100 days in a year to at least 1 person from every household in every village. The work under the programme is voluntary unskilled manual work, which is deployed to create durable assets such as roads, canals, check-dams, ponds, etc. in the villages. It is implemented through the gram panchayats.
Housing for All: Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana – Grameen (PMAY-G) – for providing pucca housing to houseless households
The PMAY-G, a centrally sponsored scheme, aims to provide a pucca house to all houseless households and those households living in kutcha and dilapidated houses, by 2022. For this purpose, identified beneficiaries are facilitated with institutional finance of upto 1.2 lakh rupees in plains, and upto 1.3 lakh in hilly states, difficult areas and IAP (Integrated Action Plan for backward tribal areas) districts, according to the revised rules published in 2018. The beneficiaries under the scheme are selected not on the basis of BPL (below poverty line) status, but on the basis of housing deprivation data from the Socio Economic and Caste Census (SECC) 2011.
Rural housing programme was formerly under the scheme of Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) 1996, which was restructured into PMAY-G in 2016.
PMGSY – Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana
PMGSY is a nationwide scheme to provide good all-weather road connectivity to the unconnected villages in the country. It started as a central sector scheme in the year 2000, and was converted into a centrally sponsored scheme in 2015. The National Rural Roads Development Agency (NRRDA) has been constituted as a society to provide technical support to the programme.
Though the roads under PMGSY are constructed with central funding (in 60:40 or 90:10 ratio), the maintenance of the roads thus constructed is solely the responsibility of the respective state government.
DAY-NRLM – Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Rural Livelihoods Mission – Aajeevika
The DAY-NRLM programme aims to promote poverty alleviation through sustainable livelihood enhancements and increased access to financial services. For this, the mission promotes organisation of rural poor through community based institutions – Self Help Groups (SHGs) – that facilitate their members to avail financial services from institutional sources such as banks and post offices. In this regard, it has achieved significant success in increasing credit availability to rural poor by collaborating with banks.
DAY-NRLM is a centrally sponsored scheme implemented through the State Rural Livelihoods Missions (SRLMs). The livelihood promotion programme started in 1999 as Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY), and restructured into National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM) in 2010-11. In 2013, National Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (NRLPS) was set up as an autonomous technical and professional body to assist the NRLM and SRLMs in the implementation of their mission objectives.
National Social Assistance Programme – NSAP
National Social Assistance Programme is a social security programme consisting of sub-schemes targeted at vulnerable groups among BPL people. It includes Old Age Pension Scheme, Widow Pension Scheme, Disability Pension Scheme, and National Family Benefit Scheme (that provides financial assistance in case of death of primary breadwinner of a family).
Mission Antyodaya – rise of the bottommost
Antyodaya literally means “rise of the bottommost”. Mission Antyodaya is a convergence framework for measurable effective outcomes on parameters that transform lives and livelihoods. Simply put, the mission ranks Gram Panchayats on various development parameters, so as to help in better targeting of government schemes to areas where they are required the most. It envisions a “Poverty Free India by 2022”.
The mission is much more focused than the similar National Level Monitor (NLM) (which monitors all schemes of rural development) as it targets the observance of rural areas at the bottom of the development ladder.
Gram Panchayat Development Plan (GPDP) Campaign or The People’s Plan Campaign
The People’s Plan Campaign is an initiative under the “Sabki Yojana Sabka Vikas” programme of the government, under which the Gram Panchayats have been mandated to prepare development plans (GPDP) for economic development and social justice. The planning has to be at the lowest level, i.e. at the Gram Sabha, with full convergence between Panchayati Raj Institutions, concerned line departments (related to the eleventh schedule subjects) of the respective state government, and schemes of all related ministries of the union government. The campaign involves participation of more than 14 ministries of the central government, prime among them being Ministry of Rural Development and Ministry of Panchayati Raj.
The overall aim of this participatory exercise is to increase the efficiency and effectiveness in implementation of flagship schemes for development of rural India.
More schemes at a glance:
- DISHA – Pradhan Mantri Gramin Digital Saksharta Abhiyan – National Digital Literacy Mission.
- NRuM – Nation Rurban Mission
- Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP)
- SAGY (SAANJHI) – Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana: for creating models of local development to encourage development in surrounding areas of the role model or the “adarsh gram”.
- DDU-GKY – Deen Dayal Upadhyay Grameen Kaushalya Yojana – for skill development and employability enhancement.