The Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare (MoAFW) is the apex body for agriculture sector. It supports agricultural research and education, and implements related schemes through the state governments as agriculture is a state subject.
- Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare
- Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying
- Department of Fisheries
- Department of Agricultural Research and Education
Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)
Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), an autonomous organisation, regulates a large network of agricultural research and education institutes, including Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), Indian Veterinary Research Institute, National Dairy Research Institute, Central Institute of Fisheries Education.
In 2011, the ICAR launched the National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) to address the challenges posed by climate change to the agriculture sector. The initiative involves strategic research, technology demonstration and capacity building through feasible implementation of the technology at the ground level.
Commission of Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP)
The Commission of Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP) is a decentralised agency responsible for recommending the Minimum Support Prices (MSP) to the government. Based on its recommendation, the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) decides and announces the final MSP.
Directorate of Marketing and Inspection (DMI)
Directorate of Marketing and Inspection (DMI) implements the agricultural marketing policies and programmes, including the Agricultural Produce Grading and Marketing Act – under the rules of which the AGMARK certification is issued. It also works with state governments to formulate and liberalise their agricultural marketing laws to be in line with the Model Agricultural Produce Marketing Committees (APMC) Act enacted by the parliament.
AGMARK is a certification mark employed on agricultural products (such as spices) in India, assuring that they conform to a set of standards approved by the Directorate of Marketing and Inspection (DMI).
National Rainfed Area Authority
National Rainfed Area Authority is an advisory body that monitors the problems of rainfed agricultural areas of the country and suggests policy changes to address those problems.
NAFED – National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation of India
NAFED is the apex organisation of ‘marketing cooperatives’ for agricultural produce across the country. It also acts as the nodal agency for procurement of oilseeds and pulses by the government under the Price Support Scheme. In 2008, it also established the National Spot Exchange – an institutionalised, electronic and transparent spot exchange for trading in commodities.
SFAC – Small Farmers’ Agri-Business Consortium
Small Farmers’ Agri-Business Consortium (SFAC) is a society promoted by the MoAFW. SFAC has pioneered the formation and growth of FPOs/FPCs (Farmer Producer Organisations/ Farmer Producer Companies), and supported them with its credit guarantee fund scheme and capital assistance scheme. It is also the implementing authority for the e-NAM platform (National Agriculture Market Scheme) – a pan India electronic trading portal networking existing APMCs and other market yards.
Schemes and programmes of the MoAFW
PM-AASHA – Pradhan Mantri Annadata Aay SanraksHan Abhiyan
PM-AASHA is an umbrella scheme consisting of three components:
- Price Support Scheme (PSS)
- Minimum Support Price for food crops
- Price Support Scheme for oilseeds and pulses
- Price Deficiency Payment Scheme (PDPS)
- Under this scheme, farmers will be paid the gap between the government announced price and the market price their produce has been able to fetch.
- Pilot of Private Procurement and Stockist Scheme (PPPS)
- To address the issues related to the government’s limited procurement and stocking capability, the PPPS will bring in private players into the procurement exercise of the government.
Minimum Support Prices scheme is a form of market intervention by the government to insure the farmers against a sharp fall in market prices of a food crop. Under this scheme the government announces a MSP for each crop before the sowing season, and after the harvesting season, buys the crops from farmers at this price. Farmers are free to sell their produce in the open market – at market rate, or to the government – at MSP rate.
There is also a separate Price Support Scheme for oilseeds and pulses.
PM-KISAN – Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi
PN-KISAN is a central sector scheme that provides an income support of Rs. 6000/- per year in three equal instalments to small and marginal farmer families having combined land holding/ownership of upto 2 hectares. See official website here.
Benefiaries and exclusion categories: Definition of family for the PM-KISAN scheme is husband, wife and minor children. The scheme became effective from 01-12-2018. A cutoff date for determination of beneficiaries has been kept at 01-02-2019 to ensure that uninformed farmers don’t lose their land to people greedy for the income support, i.e. income benefit cannot be transferred on account of change of ownership of the land, except on account of succession due to death of the landowner. Beneficiaries will be identified by the state governments, and the income support will be transferred directly into the Aadhar linked bank account of the identified beneficiaries.
Certain categories of beneficiaries (Exclusion Categories) of higher economic strata are excluded from the coverage of the scheme. These include: institutional land holders, farmer families with members employed in government or public sector jobs, professionals, publicly elected persons (sarpanch, Mayors, MLAs, MPs, etc)
RKVY – Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana – for infrastructure development
RKVY is a centrally sponsored scheme that provides funds to the state governments to invest in agriculture and allied sectors for the overall development of these sectors. The state governments have flexibility and choice regarding how they wish to invest the funds provided by the union government. The scheme has been revamped as RKVY-RAFTAAR (Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana – Remunerative Approaches for Agriculture and Allied Sector Rejuvenation) for the three year period of 2017-18 to 2019-20, with a financial allocation of around 15000 crore rupees.
Sub-schemes of Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY):
- Bringing Green Revolution to Eastern India (BGREI)
- Crop Diversification Programme in original green revolution States (CDP)
- Reclamation of Problem Soil (RPS)
- Rice Fallow Areas in Eastern India for Pulses and oil seeds
- Foot and Mouth Disease Control Programme (FMD)
- Integrated Development of Scientific Beekeeping
- Accelerated Fodder Development Programme (AFDP)
- Saffron Mission-Economic Revival of J&K Saffron
PM Krishi Sinchayi Yojana (PMKSY) – irrigation scheme – launched in 2016
The PMKSY has twin objectives of extending coverage of irrigation (“har khet ko pani”) and improving water use efficiency in agriculture (“more crop per drop”). The scheme subsumed the ongoing schemes related to irrigation such as Command Area Development and Water Management (CADWM), Accelerated Irrigation Benefits Programme (AIBP), and Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP).
Accelerated Irrigation Benefits Programme (AIBP) was launched in 2016 to expedite long pending irrigation projects. A Long Term Irrigation Fund (LTIF) has been set up under the NABARD to fund projects under the AIBP.
The PMKSY is partly implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare (MoAFW), partly by the Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation (MoWR,RD&GR), and partly by the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD).
|Components of PMKSY||Implementing authority|
|Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP)||MoWR,RD&GR|
|Command Area Development and Water Management (CADWM)||MoWR,RD&GR|
|PMKSY (Har Khet ko Pani)||MoWR,RD&GR|
|PMKSY (Per Drop More Crop)||MoAFW|
|PMKSY (Watershed)||Department of Land Resources, MoRD|
e-NAM platform (National Agriculture Market Scheme) – a pan India electronic trading portal networking existing APMCs and other market yards.
MIDH – Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture
MIDH is a programme for holistic development of the horticulture sector, covering – fruits and vegetables, root & tuber crops, mushrooms, spices, flowers, aromatic plants, coconut, cashew, cocoa and bamboo. Its components include National Horticulture Mission, National Bamboo Mission, Chaman Scheme.
National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture – a part of NAPCC
Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana 2015 promotes organic farming through cluster approach and PGS-India (Participatory Guarantee System) certification.
Soil health Management programme and Soil Health Card Scheme provides farmers with assessment of nutrients in the soil of their land, and provides suggestions to maximise agricultural productivity of the land in a cost-effective manner.
National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) – is an initiative of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, to address challenges posed by climate change to agriculture, by conducting research, technology demonstration and capacity building of local communities.
National Programme for Bovine Breeding and Dairy Development
Under the programme, Rashtriya Gokul Mission is being implemented with the objective of development and conservation of indigenous breeds to increase their stock, enhance their milk production, and improve their immunity against diseases. Under the mission, sorted semen is created and supplied to ensure more female offsprings. The Mission is being implemented through State Implementing Agencies.
The Livestock Disease Forewarning System issues alerts so that state authorities can take proactive action to protect livestock from threats.
Blue Revolution – Integrated Development and Management of Fisheries scheme – for the overall development of coastal as well as inland (pond) fishing. Deep Sea Fishing Assistance is a sub-component of this programme that provides financial assistance for purchase of deep sea fishing vessels to fishermen and their associations.
Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA) promotes decentralised extension (agricultural education) system.
PMFBY – crop insurance
Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) is a restructured weather based crop insurance scheme that covers yield loss and post harvest loss. The premium payable for this insurance is uniform across the country, and (since December 2018) is a maximum of 1.5%, 2% and 5% of the sum insured for Rabi, Kharif and Zaid crops respectively.
More Related Information:
International research organisations for agriculture:
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) is a research organisation headquartered in Hyderabad, India.
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is an international agricultural research organisation headquartered in Philippines. Its South Asia Regional Centre has been set up at the National Seed Research and Training Centre, Varanasi, India. Among the many achievements of IRRI is its development of a genetically modified variety of rice rich in Vitamin-A, called the Golden Rice.
Consortium of International Agricultural Research Centres (CGIAR) is a global partnership that unites organisations engaged in research for a food-secure future. Its members include ICARDA, ICRISAT, IFPRI, IRRI, etc.
In India, genetically modified (GM) crops are required to be approved by the Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC) of the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change. At present, Bt cotton is the only GM crop permitted for cultivation in India.
The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) announces the Minimum Support Prices (MSP) for crops, and also the Fair and Remunerative Price (FRP) for sugar. FRP is like MSP for sugar.
NAFED is the nodal agency but not the only agency, for procurement of oilseeds and pulses, as SFAC and FCI also procure pulses for government stock.
What are APMCs ?
Agricultural Produce Marketing Committees (APMC) are statutory bodies constituted by the state governments to regulate the marketing of agricultural produce. Farmers come to mandis run by APMCs to sell their products to traders at a price approved by the respective APMC. It is the responsibility of the APMCs to ensure that farmers get the right price and that they are not exploited by traders.
APMCs are however accused of hindering the growth of agricultural sector. The government is working to liberalise the APMC regime to ensure more direct transaction between farmers and consumers, and to let the prices be determined by the market forces. The e-NAM initiative, and the Model APMC Act, 2003 are steps in direction of liberalisation of APMCs.