The understanding and definition of terrorism varies worldwide. Some countries label dissenting groups as terrorists and curb their human rights in the name of fighting terrorism. Here is a list of around a dozen institutional names that come in the literature related to the global fight against terrorism and organised crime.
United Nations Global Counter-terrorism strategy
- adopted by consensus in 2006
- based on four pillars
- 1. Addressing the Conditions Conducive to the Spread of Terrorism
- 2. Preventing and Combating Terrorism
- 3. Building States’ capacity and strengthening the role of the United Nations
- 4. Ensuring Human rights and the rule of law
United Nations Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism (CCIT)
- A treaty proposed by India in 1996.
- Negotiations in deadlock over definition of terrorism. There are issues such as differentiating between terrorism and a liberation movement
- It provides for a legal framework which makes it binding on all members to deny funds and safe havens to terrorist groups.
UN Convention against Transnational Organised Crime (UNTOC) 2000
- A multilateral treaty adopted by a resolution of the UN General Assembly in 2000. Also called Palermo (Italy) Convention.
- Membership – global ratification, 189 parties.
- The convention also has 3 supplementary protocols:
- Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children.
- Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air.
- Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing and Trafficking in Firearms.
- Against Trafficking in Persons (esp. women and children), smuggling of migrants, trafficking in firearms.
UNPOL – United Nations Police: an integral part of UN peacekeeping operations.
Interpol – ICPO – International Criminal Police Organisation
- An organisation that facilitates worldwide police cooperation.
- It is headquartered in France, and its jurisdiction extends to 194 countries.
- It focuses on all aspects of public safety and transnational crime.
- From India, CBI (Central Bureau of Investigation) officially coordinates with Interpol for tracking fugitive criminals, and more.
FATF – Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering
- An intergovernmental watchdog to combat money laundering and terrorism financing. It was initially established as an initiative of G7 countries in 1989 to combat money laundering. It is headquartered at OECD, Paris.
- It has been successful in improving compliance of its AML (Anti-Money Laundering)/CFT (Combating Financing of Terrorism) standards
- Members- 35 countries + EU + GCC. Non-members include Pakistan, Iran.
UN Alliance of Civilisations: Formed in 2005, the initiative seeks international action against extremism through inter-cultural dialogue and cooperation. It is similar in its strategy to the ASEAN’s Langkawi Declaration 2015 on the Global Movement of Moderates, that seeks to reduce extremism by promoting inter-cultural interaction and dialogue.
GCTF – Global Counter-Terrorism Forum
- informal, apolitical, multilateral, counter-terrorism forum.
- inspired institutions such as GCERF – Global Community Engagement and Resilience Fund – to strengthen resilience against violent extremist ideologies through community-level initiatives.
Institute for Economics and Peace
- A popular, global think tank based in Australia.
- Global Terrorism Index Report
- It places India among top 10 countries most affected by terrorism.
- 2015: It ranked the Boko Haram as the world’s deadliest terror group.
- Global Peace Index
- Global Terrorism Index Report
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)
- An international institute based in Sweden.
- It conducts researches into conflict, armament, arms control and disarmament.
IACP – International Association of Chiefs of Police
- It is the largest forum of law enforcement/ police executives worldwide. It is headquartered in US.
- Its Asia-Pacific World Regional Office is located in New Delhi, with the Director of the Intelligence Bureau as its chairman.
The Hague Hijacking Convention 1971
- Formally the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft, it is a multilateral treaty by which states agree to prohibit and punish aircraft hijacking.
- It applies exclusively to civilian aircraft. A party to the convention has to prosecute the hijacker if no country requests his extradition.
- 2010 Beijing Supplementary Protocol to the convention came into force in 2018. It expands the scope of the convention to cover different forms of hijacking including through modern technological means.
- India has ratified the Convention. India also has an stringent Anti-hijacking Act 2016 which amended the 1982 act.