What are Schedules in the Constitution?
Schedules are certain lists associated with various articles of the constitution of India. For example, Article 1 of the Constitution says that the States and the territories of India shall be as specified in the First Schedule; thus the first schedule is the list of states and territories of India.
Originally, there were eight schedules in the Constitution, more were added later through amendment of the Constitution.Let’s look at the subject matter and some brief info about the 12 schedules to the constitution of India.
First Schedule – List of States and Union Territories of India, and their jurisdiction. There are 29 states and seven union territories in India.
Second Schedule – Salaries and emoluments of the President, Governors, Speaker and deputy speaker of Lok Saabha, Chairman and deputy chairman of Rajya Sabha, Judges of High Court and Supreme Court, Comptroller and Auditor General of India.
Third Schedule – Forms of Oaths and Affirmations for elected officials and judges.
Fourth Schedule – Allocation of seats in the Council of States (Rajya Sabha) to the states and the union territories.
Fifth Schedule – Provisions for Administration and Control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes.
It applies to 10 states – (10) Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha, Rajasthan.
Sixth Schedule – Provisions for Administration of Tribal areas in 4 states- Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram.
Seventh Schedule – Allocation of legislative powers between the Union and the States. Comprises of three lists; Union List, State List, Concurrent List
- Union List includes matters such as – Defence, Military, Foreign Affairs, Citizenship, Railways, Major Ports, RBI, currency banking, etc
- Concurrent List includes matters such as – Criminal Law, Criminal Procedure, Forests. Education, Marriage and Divorce, etc
- State List includes matters such as- Prisons, Police, Public Order, Public Health, Local government, etc
Eighth Schedule – List of languages recognised by the Constitution. This list currently comprises of 22 languages: Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkano, Maithili, Malayalam, Meitei (Manipuri), Marathi, Nepali, Odia, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santhali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu. Though English is not listed in this schedule, it is an official language across India.
Ninth Schedule – Validation of certain Acts and Regulations.
Added by 1st amendment in 1951, this schedule contains acts and orders related to land tenure, land tax, railways, industries, etc which were enacted by the government to further social justice, and sought to be exempted from judicial scrutiny. The judiciary for a long time restrained itself and avoided hearing pleas against the laws listed in the Ninth Schedule. The present status is however that the judicial review is a basic structure of the constitution of India, and the judiciary has the right to pronounce upon validity of any law. The schedule is thus redundant now.
Tenth Schedule – Provisions related to Disqualification on grounds of defection. This schedule was Added by the 52nd Constitution Amendment Act 1985, and consists of anti-defection provisions for members of Parliament and state legislatures.
Eleventh Schedule – Specifies the powers, authority, and responsibilities that may be devolved to the Panchayati Raj (Rural Local Government) by the States. It was added by the 73rd Constitution Amendment Act, 1992.
Twelfth Schedule – Specifies the powers, authority, and responsibilities that may be devolved to the Municipalities (Urban Local Government). It was added by the 74th Constitution Amendment Act, 1992.